Papilio indra (Reakirt, 1866)

Vicinity of Salt Lake, Utah; 7/96  ssp. indra Fairview, Mohave CA; June 1996  ssp fordi
Monument Peak, Laguna Mtns, CA may 29 1970 ssp pergamus Laguna Mtns, San Diego CA ssp pergamus female
Dead Mtns, Near Needles AZ {reared} ssp.pygmaeus Nye co., Nevada {reared} ssp nevadensis
Panamint range, west slope 1000m
(Los Angeles Co. Museum of Natural History) panamintensis
Fossil Ridge, Clarke co., Nevada {reared}
ssp panamintensis Transition to nevadensis?
Kaibab Plateau {reared} ssp kaibabensismale
(Los Angeles Co. Museum of Natural History)
Kaibab Plateau {reared} ssp kaibabensisfemale
(Los Angeles Co. Museum of Natural History)
Moab, Utah {reared} ssp.minori 100 mi S Moab Utah ; {reared} ssp minori but indistiguisable from kaibabensis
Providence Mtns, California {reared} martini variations in population 20 km SW Las Vegas, Nevada {reared} calicola pair
Thanks to Jim and Wayne for many of the indra photos!!

    Widespread in the western USA but not abundant, often very local. Flies in desert mountains and Ponderosa Pine forest. Some ssp may be threatened (ie in S California). A unique ssp (kaibabensis) with greatly diminished yellow on the wings is found along the north rim of the Grand Canyon (and protected by a National Park for part of its range). A wonderful research article on the races and life histories of all the indra subspecies published in 2000 by Wayne Whaley Ph.D., can be found at . Brilliant job with a complex species!