Papilio dardanus (Brown, 1776)

La Mandraka, Madagascar; 8/94  ssp. meriones NW Tanzania ssp polytrophus
Mt kulal, Kenya 1967 ssp flavicornis SW Ethiopia ssp antenorii
Grand Comoro Island Aug 1977 ssp. humboldti La Mandraka, Madagascar; 8/94  ssp. meriones Aberration
 West Kenya May 1966 female form Chyulu Hills, S Kenya polytrophus female form
Bangui, Central African Republic female form SE Kenya ssp polytrophus female form

     Twelve or more subspecies, females are highly variable with many forms mimicing local Danaid species. The small ssp humboldti shown above has been treated by some as a full species. Found throughout much of central and south Africa in forested areas. A few ssp. are currently threatened by habitat destruction (three in Tanzania). Papilio nandina has been found to be a hybrid with P phorcas (formerly felt to be a true species though quite rare).